En una oración condicional de tipo 3, el tiempo verbal de la proposición "if" es el "past perfect" y el de la cláusula principal puede ser el "perfect conditional" o el "perfect continuous conditional".
|Proposición "if"||Proposición principal|
|If + past perfect||"perfect conditional" o "perfect continuous conditional"|
|If this thing had happened||that thing would have happened.|
Como ocurre con todas las oraciones condicionales, el orden de las proposiciones no es fijo. Es posible que sea preciso modificar los pronombres y la puntuación al revertir el orden de las cláusulas pero el significado de la oración seguirá siendo el mismo.
- If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
- You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
- You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
- If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
- I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
- If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.
El "type 3 conditional" se refiere a una condición imposible, situada temporalmente en el pasado, y a su resultado probable en el pasado. Estas oraciones son ciertamente hipotéticas e irreales porque, en este momento, es demasiado tarde para que la condición o su resultado se produzcan. El condicional tipo 3 casi siempre implica cierto arrepentimiento o que lamentamos algo. La realidad es lo opuesto o lo contrario de lo que se expresa en la oración. En las oraciones condicionales de tipo 3 el marco temporal es el pasado y la situación es hipotética.
- If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.)
- If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn't know and I didn't bake a cake.)
- I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn't call me and I am not happy.)
En las oraciones condicionales de tipo 3 también pueden emplearse los modales en la cláusula principal, en lugar de "would", para expresar el grado de certeza, permiso o una recomendación sobre el resultado.
- If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
- You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
- If he called you, you could go.
- If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Tanto "would" como "had" pueden contraerse de la misma forma, -'d, algo que puede generar confusión si no dominamos las oraciones condicionales de tipo 3. Recuerda estas 2 reglas:
1. "would" nunca aparece en la proposición "if", por tanto, si "-'d" aparece en la proposición "if", será la contracción de "had".
2. "had" nunca se pone antes de "have", por tanto, si "-'d" aparece tras un pronombre y va seguido de "have", será la contracción de "would".
- If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
- If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
- I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
- I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
- If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
- If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.
El "perfect conditional"
El "perfect conditional" de cualquier verbo está compuesto por tres elementos:
would + have + past participle
"Have", seguido del "past participle" de un verbo, se emplea también en otras construcciones. Se denomina "perfect infinitive".
|Sujeto||+ would||+ have||+ past participle|
To go: perfect conditional
|I would have gone||I wouldn't have gone||Would I have gone?||Wouldn't I have gone?|
|You would have gone||You wouldn't have gone||Would you have gone?||Wouldn't you have gone?|
|He would have gone||He wouldn't have gone||Would he have gone?||Wouldn't he have gone?|
|She would have gone||She wouldn't have gone||Would she have gone?||Wouldn't she have gone?|
|We would have gone||We wouldn't have gone||Would we have gone?||Wouldn't we have gone?|
|They would have gone||They wouldn't have gone||Would they have gone?||Wouldn't they have gone?|