تغيير الأزمنة عند تحويل الكلام من مباشر إلى غير مباشر
عادةً ما يتم الرجوع بزمن الجملة خطوة واحدة إلى الماضي عند تحويل الجملة من مباشر إلى غير مباشر:
She said, "I am tired." = She said that she was tired.
|الجملة في الكلام المباشر||ما يماثلها في الكلام غير المباشر|
|مضارع بسيط||ماضي بسيط|
|"I always drink coffee", she said||She said that she always drank coffee.|
|مضارع مستمر||ماضي مستمر|
|"I am reading a book", he explained.||He explained that he was reading a book|
|ماضي بسيط||ماضي تام|
|"Bill arrived on Saturday", he said.||He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday.|
|مضارع تام||ماضي تام|
|"I have been to Spain", he told me.||He told me that he had been to Spain.|
|ماضي تام||ماضي تام|
|"I had just turned out the light," he explained.||He explained that he had just turned out the light.|
|مضارع تام مستمر||ماضي تام مستمر|
|They complained, "We have been waiting for hours".||They complained that they had been waiting for hours.|
|ماضي مستمر||ماضي تام مستمر|
|"We were living in Paris", they told me.||They told me that they had been living in Paris.|
|"I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said.||He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday.|
|مستقبل مستمر||مضارع شرطي مستمر|
|She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday".||She said that she would be using the car next Friday.|
لا يتم تغيير زمن الجملة إذا كان فعل القول في زمن المضارع، أو إذا كانت الجملة الأصلية تتحدث عن شيء لا يزال حقيقيًا على سبيل المثال.
- He says he has missed the train but he'll catch the next one.
- We explained that it is very difficult to find our house.
الأفعال الناقصة التالية لا تتغير عند تحويل الكلام من مباشر إلى غير مباشر: might, could, would, should, ought to:
- We explained, "It could be difficult to find our house." = We explained that it could be difficult to find our house.
- She said, "I might bring a friend to the party." = She said that she might bring a friend to the party.