تغيير الأزمنة عند تحويل الكلام من مباشر إلى غير مباشر

عادةً ما يتم الرجوع بزمن الجملة خطوة واحدة إلى الماضي عند تحويل الجملة من مباشر إلى غير مباشر:
She said, "I am tired." = She said that she was tired.

الجملة في الكلام المباشر ما يماثلها في الكلام غير المباشر
مضارع بسيط ماضي بسيط
"I always drink coffee", she said She said that she always drank coffee.
مضارع مستمر ماضي مستمر
"I am reading a book", he explained. He explained that he was reading a book
ماضي بسيط ماضي تام
"Bill arrived on Saturday", he said. He said that Bill had arrived on Saturday.
مضارع تام ماضي تام
"I have been to Spain", he told me. He told me that he had been to Spain.
ماضي تام ماضي تام
"I had just turned out the light," he explained. He explained that he had just turned out the light.
مضارع تام مستمر ماضي تام مستمر
They complained, "We have been waiting for hours". They complained that they had been waiting for hours.
ماضي مستمر ماضي تام مستمر
"We were living in Paris", they told me. They told me that they had been living in Paris.
المستقبل مضارع شرطي
"I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said. He said that he would be in Geneva on Monday.
مستقبل مستمر مضارع شرطي مستمر
She said, "I'll be using the car next Friday". She said that she would be using the car next Friday.

لا يتم تغيير زمن الجملة إذا كان فعل القول في زمن المضارع، أو إذا كانت الجملة الأصلية تتحدث عن شيء لا يزال حقيقيًا على سبيل المثال.

  • He says he has missed the train but he'll catch the next one.
  • We explained that it is very difficult to find our house.

 

الأفعال الناقصة التالية لا تتغير عند تحويل الكلام من مباشر إلى غير مباشر: might, could, would, should, ought to:

  • We explained, "It could be difficult to find our house." = We explained that it could be difficult to find our house.
  • She said, "I might bring a friend to the party." = She said that she might bring a friend to the party.