Present participle

O "present participle" da maioria dos verbos possui a forma radical + "ing". Ele é utilizado de várias maneiras diferentes.

"Present participle" na forma contínua do verbo
Exemplos
  • I am working.
  • He was singing.
  • They have been walking.
  • We will be staying.
  • She would have been expecting me.
"Present participle" após verbos de movimento & posição

Essa construção é particularmente útil com o verbo "to go".

Exemplos
  • She went shopping.
  • I go running every morning.
  • He lay looking up at the clouds.
  • She came running towards me.
"Present participle" após verbos de percepção

Essa forma de uso possui o padrão verbo + objeto + "present participle". Quando essas orações incluem um infinitivo sem o termo "to", no lugar de um particípio, o significado varia. O infinitivo se refere a uma ação concluída, enquanto que o "present participle" indica uma ação em progresso.

Exemplos
  • I heard someone singing.
  • He saw his friend walking along the road.
  • I can smell something burning!
  • I watched the birds flying away.
"Present participle" como adjetivo
Exemplos
  • It was an amazing film.
  • Dark billowing clouds often precede a storm.
  • He was trapped inside the burning house.
  • Many of his paintings show the setting sun.
"Present participle" com os verbos "spend" e "waste"

Com esses verbos, a construção consiste na fórmula verbo + expressão de tempo/dinheiro + "present participle".

Exemplos
  • My boss spends two hours a day travelling to work.
  • Don't waste time playing computer games!
  • They've spent the whole day shopping.
  • I wasted money buying this game.
"Present participle" com os verbos "catch" e "find"

Com esses verbos, a construção consiste na fórmula verbo + objeto + "present participle". No caso do verbo "catch", o particípio sempre indica uma ação que causa aborrecimento ou raiva. Esse não é o caso com "find", que não contém carga emocional.

Exemplos
  • If I catch you stealing my apples again, there'll be trouble!
  • Don't let him catch you reading his letters.
  • I caught him going through my bag.
  • We found some money lying on the ground.
  • They found their mother sitting in the garden.
"Present participle" para duas ações simultâneas

Quando duas ações ocorrem ao mesmo tempo e são realizadas pelo mesmo sujeito (pessoa ou coisa), podemos utilizar um "present participle" para descrever uma delas. Quando uma ação sucede muito rapidamente alguma outra realizada pelo mesmo sujeito, podemos expressar a primeira ação por meio de um "present participle".

Exemplos
  • Whistling to himself, he walked down the road. = He whistled to himself as he walked down the road.
  • They went laughing out into the snow. = They laughed as they went out into the snow.
  • Dropping the gun, she put her hands in the air. = She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air.
  • Putting on his coat, he left the house. = He put on his coat and left the house.
"Present participle" para explicar motivos

O "present participle" pode substituir frases iniciadas por as, since ou because. Nesse tipo de uso, a oração participial explica a causa ou motivo de uma ação.

Exemplos
  • Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge.
  • Being poor, he didn't spend much on clothes.
  • Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat.
  • He whispered, thinking his brother was still asleep.