Conditionnel Type 3

Forme

Dans des phrases du conditionnel type 3, la proposition introduite par "if" est au passé parfait et la proposition principale est au conditionnel parfait ou au conditionnel parfait continu.

Proposition introduite par "if" (condition) Proposition principale (résultat)
If + passé parfait conditionnel parfait ou conditionnel parfait continu
If this thing had happened that thing would have happened.

Comme dans toutes les phrases conditionnelles, l'ordre des propositions n'est pas fixe. On aura peut-être à modifier la ponctuation ou à ajuster les pronoms quand on change l'ordre des propositions, mais le sens sera identique.

Exemples
  • If it had rained, you would have gotten wet.
  • You would have gotten wet if it had rained.
  • You would have passed your exam if you had worked harder.
  • If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.
  • I would have believed you if you hadn't lied to me before.
  • If you hadn't lied to me before, I would have believed you.

Fonction

Le conditionnel type 3 se réfère à une condition irréelle dans le passé et son résultat probable dans le passé. Les phrases conditionnelles de type 3 sont vraiment hypothétiques ou irréelles, car il est désormais trop tard pour que la condition (ou son résultat) existe. Dans les phrases du conditionnel type 3, il y a toujours une implication de regret que les choses ne soient pas autrement, ou de gratitude que les choses ne se sont pas passées comme elles auraient pu. Les faits réels sont le contraire de ce qui est exprimé. Le conditionnel type 3 reflète une action ayant lieu au passé et la situation est contraire à la réalité.

Exemples
  • If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam. (But I didn't work hard, and I didn't pass the exam.)
  • If I had known you were coming I would have baked a cake. (But I didn't know and I didn't bake a cake.)
  • I would have been happy if you had called me on my birthday. (But you didn't call me and I am not happy.)

Dans une phrase du conditionnel type 3 on peut utiliser des verbes modaux dans la proposition principale à la place du futur pour exprimer le degré de certitude du résultat.

Exemples
  • If I had worked harder I might have passed the exam.
  • You could have been on time if you had caught the bus.
  • If he called you, you could go.
  • If you bought my school supplies for me, I might be able to go to the park.
Contractions

Les mots would et had peuvent tous les deux etre reduits a 'd dans leur forme contractée, ce qui peut porter à confusion. Rappelez-vous de 2 règles:
1. would n’apparaît jamais dans la proposition introduite par if alors si 'd apparaît dans cette proposition, il doit être la contraction de had.
2. had n’apparaît jamais juste avant have alors si 'd apparaît juste avant have, il doit être la contraction de would.

Exemples
  • If I'd known you were in hospital, I'd have visited you.
  • If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.
  • I'd have bought you a present if I'd known it was your birthday.
  • I would have bought you a present if I had known it was your birthday.
  • If you'd given me your e-mail, I'd have written to you.
  • If you had given me your e-mail, I would have written to you.

Le conditionnel parfait

Le conditionnel parfait de n'importe quel verbe est composé de trois éléments:
would + have + participe passé
Have suivi du participe passé est utilisé par ailleurs en anglais. Il s'appelle "l'infinitif parfait".

Sujet + would + have + participe passé
He would have gone
They would have stayed
To Go: conditionnel parfait
Affirmatif Négatif Interrogatif Interrogatif Négatif
I would have gone I wouldn't have gone Would I have gone? Wouldn't I have gone?
You would have gone You wouldn't have gone Would you have gone? Wouldn't you have gone?
He would have gone He wouldn't have gone Would he have gone? Wouldn't he have gone?
She would have gone She wouldn't have gone Would she have gone? Wouldn't she have gone?
We would have gone We wouldn't have gone Would we have gone? Wouldn't we have gone?
They would have gone They wouldn't have gone Would they have gone? Wouldn't they have gone?